The Albanians Must Be Exterminated  New York Times 1912 - Trail of BLOOD
[Leo Freundlich: Albania's Golgotha - prosecution file against the destroyers of the Albanian people . Collected and edited by Leo Freundlich (Vienna: Joseph Roller, 1913) 32 pp.]

Prosecution actions against the destroyers of the Albanian people

The little book 'Albania' Golgotha'is essentially a compilation of press reports from Kosovo during the Balkan Wars, 1912-1913. The Ottoman Empire, which ruled for five hundred years in Kosova, was about to break apart and dissolve. During the war apart-translations, which were held throughout the Balkans, Kosovo Serb forces attacked and occupied it for Serbia. They tried it - with dire consequences - of his native to clean Albanian-speaking population.
The author of this moving script, Leo Freundlich (1875 - 1954) was a politician and journalist from Vienna. It is known that a wealthy factory owner in friendly family of Jewish origin in southern Poland Bielsko-Biala (Bielsko-Biala) - was born and early developed a passion for the ideals of socialism - then part of Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the Czech Aussig (Usti nad Labem), he served as editor of the left, where he met his wife, Emmy Koegler, daughter of the late mayor of the city. 

The couple married in Gretna Green in Scotland in 1900 and then settled in Moravia-Schönberg (Šumperk) low, the Leo represented in the Reichsrat in 1907. Emmy and Leo Freundlich, both politically very active, participated in the founding of the consumer society and gave public lectures to raise support for socialism. Leo was the proud publisher of the successful friendly, left-wing newspaper "People's Guard," in his attacks against the Catholic Church, he repeated difficulties and three weeks' strict arrest "brought in. In 1910 came the newspaper and the local consumer in financial trouble, and after the defeat of the German Socialists in northern Bohemia, he had to leave the Imperial Parliament in 1910. It seems the marriage did not survive. Together with their two daughters Hertha (1901-1979) and Gertrude (1902-1985) was Emmy-friendly (1878-1948) to Merano and got divorced. Then the couple would have no contact with each other, although Leo's children still attended. With its close relations with the leading Social Democrats, Karl Renner and cooperative international artists in Vienna was Emmy-friendly to a known journalist and politician of the Austrian co-operative movement. In the years 1921-1948 she was president of the International Cooperative Women's Guild.

After the release of 'Albanian Golgotha ??"in 1913, Leo was friendly in the first world war as a soldier in the Austro-Hungarian army in Albania. After acquaintance with Ahmet Zog (1895-1961) in Vienna, who later gave to the king of the Albanians (1928-1939) appoint, in whose service was friendly, and served in the Austrian capital as Honorary Consul of the Kingdom of the Albanians. In this capacity he assisted in the thirties, to promote trade relations between Albania and the German Empire. It is reported that he hated him the Nazi salute with an ironic "healing Zog" and came across this over the confusion of his German interlocutor amused, who believed that this was a generally accepted form of greeting in Albania.

When life unbearable for Jews in Vienna, it was moved to welcome to Switzerland, where he headed the Albanian Mission in Geneva, the League of Nations. In 1939, his daughters fled from Vienna, and were received by the father. Leo Freundlich, who had married a second time was during the Second World War, in Geneva, where he lived and was impoverished by his daughters in London and later financial support from America.

After the Second World War and the Communist takeover in Albania to remember that Friendly wrote a letter to the then Albanian Prime Minister Koçi Xoxe (1917-1949), with the - to be appointed Please return to the Honorary Consul in Vienna - probably severed.



Leo Freundlich: Albania's Golgotha 1913

On the eastern shore of the Adriatic, barely three days' journey from Vienna, live an autochthonous people fighting for centuries against enemies and oppressors of all kinds for its freedom and independence: Albanians: Through all the fights and all the historical upheavals throughout this people has kept its originality and neither the migration nor the fighting with Serbs, Turks and other conquerors and oppressors could to prevent that the Albanians in race and language, tradition and custom have received their character is pure and unadulterated.

The history of this nation is an unbroken chain of bloody battles against violent oppressors. But even the bloodiest atrocities were not able to eradicate this vigorous race. And though their oppressors in Albania any possibility of a cultural development nipped in the bud, the intellectual life of the Albanians has developed strongly. These people gave the Turkish Empire, the most distinguished generals and statesmen, the best judge of the Ottoman Empire are Albanians, as the most outstanding works of Turkish literature were created by Albanians. Almost all the merchants in Montenegro come from this nation, as well as the most efficient traders in many major cities in Romania. In Italy, the Albanians play a significant role in all areas, including Crispi was one of them. Greece's ablest soldiers are Albanian tribe.

In the great upheaval that has brought about the Balkan war, is now finally the ancient dream of freedom and independence of this nation reality: the great European powers have decided to give Albania the state autonomy.

But the Serbian thirst for conquest has found a way to destroy this beautiful dream of a brave and freedom-loving people, just before its realization. With fire and sword, the Serbian troops have invaded Albania.Can not conquered Albania, the Albanians should be eradicated - that's the solution!

On 18 October 1912 issued by King Peter

***

On 18 October 1912 issued by King Peter of Serbia's manifesto "to the Serbian people," in which he says:

"The Turkish governments towards their citizens, lack of understanding shown for their duties and were deaf to all complaints and ideas. It got to the point that the situation in European Turkey, no one was more pleased. It was the Serbs, the Greeks and intolerable for the Albanians.

I have therefore in God's name ordered my brave army to move into the sacred struggle for the freedom of our brothers and for a better life.

My army will encounter in Old Serbia, together with the Christian and Moslem Serbs, who we are as expensive, and besides them also Christian and Moslem Albanians with whom our nation has been divided thirteen hundred years, ever joy and sorrow. We bring you all the freedom, fraternity and equality. "

Since this solemn manifesto nor less than six months has elapsed, and how the Serbs have honored the word of their king?

Thousands and thousands killed and tortured to death men, women, old men and children, burned and looted villages, violated women and girls, a ravaged, plundered, and desecrated in the blood floating country give an answer to this question.

Not as a liberator, as the murderer of the Albanians, the Serbs came to Albania. At the London Union ambassadors were given the suggestion to define the borders of Albania according to a national or denominational statistics that would have to charge a commission on the spot. The Serbs have hastened to prepare these statistics with machine guns, rifles and bayonets. They have committed atrocities that are indescribable. The outrage and the horror of these crimes be surpassed by the deep sense of oppression that such horrible atrocities in Europe, not far from major cultural centers in the twentieth century are possible. And this feeling is even more difficult by the fact that, nevertheless tell Rapporteur of all nations for months of this horrible deeds, but tossed his flaming indictment Pierre Loti in the world, nothing is done to stop this horrific slaughter to an end.

A brave, full of character, people are crucified to the world, and Europe, the Christian, civilized Europe is silent, it!

Tens of thousands of defenseless people are massacred, women raped, old people and children strangled, hundreds of villages burned down, priests slaughtered.

And Europe remains silent!

Serbia and Montenegro have moved out to conquer a foreign country. But on the country a freedom loving, brave people, whose neck is sitting, despite centuries of slavery still has not gotten used to wear a foreign yoke. So openly, the solution has been issued: The Albanians must be exterminated!

A savage, ruthless soldiers who made this solution in the most terrible way to truth.

Countless villages were razed to the ground, massacred countless people in animal cruelty. Where the hard work of generations of poor Albanians a modest home created, are smoldering ruins, a whole nation is bleeding on the cross - and Europe remains silent!

***

The object of this book is to arouse the conscience of the European public. The reports, which are collected here are only a fraction of the available material. More than what they contained, the European governments through official consular reports, known by the popular press publications.

So far, governments have remained silent.

But now any further silence is tantamount to complicity.

The powers must be "hands off" the raging barbarian with a categoricalrecall. The cruel Vertilgungszug in Albania must immediately put an end to.And an international investigation commission should be set up to investigate the terrible accusations against the Serbian government.

Above all, the Serbian-Montenegrin invasion forces must immediately leave the Albanian territories and the Greek blockade, which cut off all food supplies Albania must be repealed.

In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, on behalf of the Albanian people unhappy, I'll call the governments of major powers, callingme to the entire European public.

To the public in England, I address myself to that nation, which has collected at the time of the Armenian atrocities so manfully her voice for the oppressed.

In France, the publicity I address my appeal to France, which has so often proved that it knows humanity and human rights respected.

An unhappy people, to carry the a horrible fate, calls for help from his Golgotha.

Will Europe hear its call?

Vienna, on Easter Sunday, 1913

Leo Freundlich

***

The Albanians must be exterminated!

In conjunction with the news that 300 Albanians in Prizren Ljumesen who were found unarmed, were shot without trial, writes the Frankfurter Zeitung : In the present case seems regular Serbian army to have caused the carnage. But where else was the worst massacres of the irregular auxiliaries, they acted without any doubt and with complete acquiescence to the will of the Serbian authorities. To ourselves has been declared at the beginning of the war of Serbian authority in charge of open: "We will exterminate the Albanians."After all European protests will continue unchanged from this systematic policy of extermination, it seems our duty to expose the intentions of the gentlemen in Belgrade ruthless. The gentlemen will deny indignantly in the certainty that journalistic propriety prevents us from naming names. But it goes without saying that we would not make such an announcement, if we might not necessarily hold on to her. Finally here, the facts speak louder than the frankest confessions could do it. Since last autumn, have exceeded the limit and Serbian troops occupied territories inhabited by Albanians, has a bloodbath on the other in a row.

A war of extermination

Professor Schiemann wrote in one of the Kreuz-Zeitung published article: An extremely saddening picture coming forward, despite the strict censorship of the allied Balkan States, and despite the pressure exerted on the war correspondents who come here reaching private letters from the theater of war, in which the warfare of the Serbs and Greece is described.The Serbs, it says in the article, a war of extermination against the Albanian nation lead, which they would most like to destroy the root.

Daily Chronicle reported on 12 November 1912, it was true that thousands of Arnauts were massacred by the Serbs. In the vicinity of Skopje were 2000 and 5000 near Prizren massacred Muslim Arnaut. Many villages have been burned by the Serbs and the inhabitants were slaughtered. During the house searches for weapons were Albanians, even if they had found in their houses no weapons, just killed. The Serbs declared quite openly that the Moslem Albanians were to be exterminated, it was the most effective means for the pacification of the country.

The war correspondent of the Roman Messaggero reported terrible Serbian Albanesengemetzel the Vilayet of Kosovo. As a result, the resistance of the Albanian villages Ferisovic, Negotin Lipian Babu and others were completely destroyed, massacred the inhabitants mostly. A Catholic priest told me it was three days fought furiously to Ferisovic, after the conquest was the Serbian commander can call upon the fugitives, and return quietly lay down their arms. This done, three or four hundred people were massacred. Throughout Ferisovic only half a dozen Moslem families had left. The poorer Serbian families have settled quickly into the homes of wealthy refugees.

The Paris Humanité published an official report, the consulate in Salonika was reimbursed. The report describes the work consulate of the Serbs in Albania: plundering, destruction, massacre. The number of Albanian villages, which are wholly or partly by the Serbs is being systematically destroyed, thirty-one. The other by Kristo from Kumanovo, Skopje from Ssiro Diliow, Alexandrowos of Ischtip gangs looted and out of all towns and districts Kratovo Kotschana, they set it on fire and slaughtered the entire Muslim population. In Schujowo Mescheli and all Muslims were massacred, another two hundred in Vétreni. In Bodganitza sixty Turks were locked up in a mosque. Later they were allowed to step out and made ??down one by one. In the district were destroyed by a total of Kawadar ninety-eight villages thirty-four. The Turks, who thought they were saved in part by fees paid to a ransom gang were killed by another gang. In Drenewo all the inhabitants were killed. Between this place and you have found a number Palikura graves, from which heads sticking out. They are among the martyrs who were buried alive! Manhunts.

Manhunts

The war correspondent for the Danish newspaper Riget , Fritz Magnussen, an otherwise Serbs friendly man described as follows in a telegram, which he, in order to escape the strict censorship, sent a special courier from Skopje to Zemun, the actions of the Serbs under the Arnaut population : 

"The Serbian war in Macedonia, the character of a horrific massacre of the Arnaut population has accepted the army carries out a gruesome war of extermination. Are murdered According to the officers and soldiers between Kumanovo and Skopje 300 and Pristina 5000 Arnauts been. The Arnaut villages were surrounded and set on fire, whereupon the inhabitants driven from their homes and shot down like rats. Of this manhunt, the Serbian military says very boastful.

The situation in Skopje is quite appalling. In the Arnaut is a ruthless examination arranged house and when you find something like weapons, they are shot on the spot. It is very insecure in the streets, there is always shot from the houses and the houses.

Yesterday 36 Arnauts were from a military court sentenced to death and shot on the spot. Not a day goes by without gruesome murders are committed against the Arnaut. The river is more upstairs filled with corpses.Every day, organized hunting expeditions in the surrounding villages.Yesterday, a Serbian officer invited me to participate in such a hunt, as he boasted at the same time saying that he personally killed the day before nine Arnauts. "

 

***

Appear from a person whose name and position for each outstanding conscientious sheet as a guarantee of the authenticity of their messages need to receive the imperial post a dossier about the terrible atrocities that were committed by Serbian bands and regular troops in Albania.

This file contains the following reports:  

. "The city of Skopje and its surroundings are witnesses of the barbarities that were committed against the Albanians, I looked for days on end the raids, armed by Serbian gangs and regular troops were organized by Albanians and three days I saw at night the flames of burning villages, the sky redden, and five villages in the immediate vicinity of Skopje lay even after this terrible time in ruins, its population was killed almost without exception, although in the vicinity of Skopje by the Albanians the invading Serbs no armed resistance was opposed to behind the fortress of Skopje. there is a rocky gorge, which is still filled with the corpses of more than a hundred victims of this persecution. are also in the gorge of Vistala Voda near the city of Skopje 80 Albanians. visited Shortly after the entrance is a reliable informant, with whom I will have spoken, the hospital in Skopje, where he found on his first visit 132 Albanians wounded, he met the next day only a few days later, 80 and 30 The only treatment that allowed the wounded Albanians be granted, defied all humanity , they were refused food and drink, so that some of the wounded died on the testimony of witnesses in the hospital for lack of sustenance. Many corpses, and as the population claims that the body of the wounded, which was Laben, threw it in the Vardar, the daily anschwemmte twenty to thirty corpses a distance below the town. In my hotel in Skopje lived several Serbian Komitatschi that of their predators and human hunting boasters publicly in the house told, especially if had given them the wine tongue dissolved. One In the evening they shot on the streets in Skopje two Albanians, who were unarmed and harmless went their way. The two murderers who were released shortly after the incident at the hotel and got drunk there, unmolested by the military authorities, even though everyone in the city they as the perpetrator knew. A bloody scene occurred at the Vardarbrücke in the city. Here, three Albanians who wanted the city to make purchases, attacked by Serbian soldiers and easily, without trial and interrogation massacred. As the plants . prepare from tombs of the soldiers trouble seemed, because the ground is frozen, so they threw a lot of fatalities just in cisterns your informant 38 cisterns counted in the area of Skopje, which are filled with Albanian corpses. - The national tracking is combined with banditry . I have personally witnessed how a Serb soldier, showing off two watches and 150 Turkish pounds he had been captured, as he saw pass by a well-dressed Albanians, with sincere regret in Skopje said: "Pity is so much to people are! I would give him otherwise a ball! "The Albanese is considered fair game, which is not protected by law and no courts. Quite a few riots, however, were also committed in drunkenness and drunken gangs of soldiers who were wandering around and broke into the houses, the most terrible.

Since I'm completely dominant Serbian, Serbian officers and soldiers held me for a co-nationals, and so often a Serbian soldier told me in a tone of bravado as one of Kumanovo, where albanesisches stormed: "A lot of residents who could not escape, .. had been hiding in the attics of their homes, we have smoked it, and if the huts were burning, they were screaming and cursing and whimpering for mercy like moles in their burrows We have shot at the doors, only the children we saved the balls and did it with the bayonet. We have eradicated the village because he had been fired from a house that had a white flag. " - The military authorities of these massacres have never fought, many officers were involved in the atrocities, and there were no Serbs who had not acted in the conviction that these inhumanities a meritorious, to accomplish by his superiors deliberate work. "

***

In Kalkandele, 85 Albanians, as they were found without an armed resistance would be preceded massacred in their houses and looted the village. The atrocities that of women and girls, even at twelve year old children were committed are not to describe, maybe it was the height of abomination that soldiers forced them with drawn revolvers, fathers and husbands, to witness and to light up when the Rotten committed their crimes in the houses of the daughters and wives of the attacked. In Gostivar, the city saved by the fact that they might redeem themselves from the Serbian commander with 200 Turkish pounds. Here only six Albanians were shot dead.

In Ferisovic it was unlike the previously mentioned sites to an organized armed resistance of the Albanians. It was fought here 24 hours a day, and here it happened that an Albanian woman who had killed her husband, grabbed his rifle and shot down five Serbs before she was killed. The carnage in Ferizovic fell victim to more than 1,200 Albanians. The city is now almost without inhabitants. This location is only three Albanian Muslims, who are over 15 years. In Gillane, where the Albanians were defending not, most of the population fell by fire and sword. Only a few refugees came as survivors, and about the horrors of destruction of Gillane tell only the ruins.

In Pristina, the Serbian occupation reigned even bloodier. The Albanians estimate the number of their dead here, to 5000. It must be said in honor of justice, that this actually occurred a serious abuse of the truce, and it opened here Turkish officers, after the white flag had already been shown, suddenly, the Serb forces, the fire, apparently with the intention of the cease-fire negotiations Albanians to prevent this. The offense lost hundreds of Albanian families to their destruction at the youngest child in the cradle.

In the village of Leskovac in Ferisovic eight unarmed Albanians were found by Serb soldiers and immediately shot.

***

The city of Prizren provides the Einmarsche the Serbs no resistance, yet even here the blood flowed in streams, so that Prizren to Pristina today is the worst-stricken city of Albania. The locals call it sad that the "Queen of Death." Here the Serbian bands were housed at the worst. They forced their way into homes, beat up, which came in their way, regardless of their age and sex. For days the dead remained unburied in the streets are, as the Serbian victors were busy elsewhere, and the surviving Albanian population was not allowed to venture out of their homes. Renewed every night in the city and surrounding the attacks. At 400 Albanians fell in the first few days after the Einmarsche the Serbs. Nevertheless, forcing the commander General Jankovic, the notables and tribal leader from Prizren with the revolver in his hand, a declaration of gratitude to King Peter for the "liberation by the Serbian army" to sign. As it began the Serb troops to march to the west and to procure no horses to transport their loads could, requisitioned 200 Albanians, which they loaded up loads of 50 and 60 pounds to them during the night on baseless bad roads seven hours far to drive to the area of ??the Luma. As the crowd very unhappy and broken in a terrible state due to the superhuman fatigue and maltreatment arrived at their destinations, even the local Serbian commander expressed on this kind of process of his disapproval.

A woman from Fandi, named Dila, came with her son, another relative and two men of the village Gjugja to Prizren, to do shopping for the equipment of their daughter. Before she left Prizren, she applied for a permit for herself and her companion in the command of General Jankovic in order to pass unmolested to the Serbian position. She received the passport. As the five people in Suni, about arrived many hours of Prizren, the people were deprived of their property, the four men bound and thrown into a pit. The soldiers then shot the unfortunate man from the edge of the pit. The distraught mother, who was a witness of this scene screamed, according to her son and when she saw that he was no longer active and was killed, she threw herself in front of the soldiers to their knees and begged them to kill them. They tied her to a tree and as the noise of gunfire officers came up, showed the soldiers apart broken bread, which she declined the woman in which she pressed two Mauser cartridges and who have demonstrated this as evidence that the men in the sandwiches ammunition tried to smuggle.Whereupon the officers give them further. The unhappy woman remained in sight of the pit in which lay her of shot son, bound from Monday afternoon continuously until Wednesday at the tree, on Wednesday were driven by hunger and cold of late autumn nights almost completely exhausted to Prizren, where they at night Wednesday arrived. There, they locked them again the next day and took them to headquarters. Nevertheless, General Jankovic had to recognize that an innocent person standing before him, the unfortunate woman was not released, but the house of the Serbian bishop jailed until the next day. Then she was handed over to the Catholics and the church brought in, where they feasted the unfortunate.

In Prizren, the baker lived i Prek Palit Gioni, who had to deliver bread to the Serb forces. One day there came to him a sergeant and had food with him, because he wanted to come back soon to hang his rifle. Some soldiers who entered it by chance in the bakery saw the gun and captured the baker, as he had done against the weapons ban. He was immediately brought before a military tribunal and shot.

Hearing this, the brother of Baker, Gini, of the arrest, he immediately ran to the sergeant and led them to the military police, where the latter also testified that Mauser had been his, he left for a short time at the bakery, he was also the correct number that carry the gun and when that does not reveal his. Gini and the Serbian witness were driven away with blows. About his arrested brother was able to Gini learned nothing. After ten days, was the mother of the unfortunate people shot that day and night looking for her son, whom she believed were still alive, the body of a mile outside the city.She asked her to leave the body so that she could let this be given a Christian burial. It was denied. Thereupon, the Catholic priest appeared before the commander and asked the name of freedom of religion to bury for permission to light in the Catholic cemetery. It was denied that and only allowed to bury the dead where they lay.

Officers also participated in the atrocities, and it happened in Prizren that a soldier who unsuccessfully asked for shoes or sandals on his uniform officer who was ordered by an officer, he should the next Albanians, where he sees good sandals, slimming, what he needs - what he did was because gun! And the officer had his sandals, which he had also acquired Sun

***

In the surrounding area from Prizren three Albanian villages were totally destroyed and thirty municipality representatives from the area are killed.They were accused that they "Austro-minded" were. In one of these communities it happened that soldiers drove the Albanian women from their houses, tied them together and forced to dance in a row. Then they opened a rifle fire upon the captives, and amused themselves by how one of the most defenseless victims bleeding after the other collapsed.

As the General Jankovic was reported that at the root cause of Ljumesen the passage of the Serbian troops against obstacles in the Adriatic was preparing, he ordered to proceed with ruthless severity. In areas of Luma 27 villages were completely destroyed and the population down to the children killed. Here occurred the most terrible atrocities known to the Serbian war of extermination against the Albanians. It was literally that women and children wrapped with straw and burned in front of their captive husbands and fathers were. Women who were enceinte were mangled in horrible ways and put an unborn child on bayonets. My informant, a highly respectable, thoroughly reliable man added to his report: "It is impossible to imagine all this, and fact!" 400 men from Luma who surrendered voluntarily were taken to Prizren and shot in groups of 40 each day to 60. There will also find similar daily executions. In the neighborhood of Prizren lie unburied corpses of hundreds today. Gjakova is also almost completely destroyed and its population decimated.

In Tertenik, 60 Albanians killed in Smira 32, Ferban 20 in Ljubishta 19, Kameno Glava, which numbered 50 families, all men are killed without exception. In the latter places, the men were forced to compete, then to salute, they were bound and shot without court-martial. In Presevo, there are few survivors.

In the vilayet of Kossovo, it is estimated that one should not call this number to be excessive, the number of Albanians killed 25,000.

***

The Albanian correspondent reported on 20 March 1913: From reliable source we get the following report of Albanian from Skopje: In the vicinity of Skopje Serbian troops and commit comitadjis blatant atrocities against the population of the occupied territories they. In particular, the following local European circles, verläßlichst identified incidents have aroused horror: the end of February was Serbian military in the village Shashare. After all the men and boys of the village had been removed, the soldiers raped the women and girls of the village. The same method practiced shameful Serbian soldiers in the village Letnica. It should be emphasized that both Shashare and Letnica an exclusively Slavic and Catholic population. The nameless savagery of the Serbian army does not even stop in front of fellow Christian.Shashare is a settlement of over one hundred families.

Even the terrible live verwildeten troops in other areas. In twenty-nine villages of Kara Dag, 280 farmhouses burnt down by Muslim Albanians and all the male inhabitants, who took no time to escape, fell under the bullets and bayonets of the soldiers. Like the Serbs, the Huns from village to village romp. The villages Trstenik, Senica, Vrban, Ljubishta Giulekar and were the scene of a horrific bloodbath. 238 men were mercilessly slaughtered here. In Sefer, an old woman was burnt alive along with her ??Catholic servant. The misery of the people is immeasurable. In the village Ljubishta is the misery reached such a degree that Moslem Albanian women at surviving at surviving Moslems by 400 piasters as property and as it were sold as slaves. In this village, the Serbs have a man, an old woman and two children were burned alive. In Giulekar was a pregnant woman slashed with bayonets the belly and it ripped out the fetus. Presta shot in a Muslim woman whose husband had taken away one, five Serbian soldiers. The Serbs were convinced the whole village - 90 farms - on fire and let it rise up in flames.

The Serbs devastate whole regions and slaughtering the inhabitants. Their fury is directed equally against Muslims and Catholics. The surviving population is in unutterable misery and despair.

A report by the German people sheet of 19 February 1913 states: "Only a few villages and towns (which they occupied areas) are as completely spared by the Serbs to consider and too many Albanians are there who have to avenge the deaths of women and children as now. the cities of the command has been issued, surrender their weapons immediately, it was very, very few who offered this command sequence, most hid their weapons in the home or they fled to, rather than the Albanese separated from his whole farm than from his rifle. In order to give the command emphasis patrols were sent into the houses, they performed a search, and woe to him at the found weapons. A few hours later, the military court had ruled on it. A blatant case took place in Tirana from. Serbian soldiers came to a local merchant who, taking all sorts of things. As it the numbers came, there was no money, so a soldier, the merchant simply dropped his gun as a deposit. Later in fear over fact, the soldier went to the respective commander and reported to the display that had him taken off the merchant his rifle. Soon after, a patrol was released by the Albanians, the gun found on him, I brought before a military tribunal and, despite his protestations that he had taken the gun so only as a pledge, was he shot.

An Albanian village in Zala county north of Kruja was a Serb who had broken into his hut and blundered to his wife, shot and fled. Later, when the Serbs came to the scene and the perpetrator is no longer found it, was - unfortunately it's the sad truth -. All the inhabitants, about 100 people, including women and children, murdered and burned the village "

***

Serbian blood lust

The special correspondent of the Daily Telegraph . reported: "All the terrible persecutions of the world's history have been overtaken by the terrible actions of the troops of General Jankovic during their march through Albania, the Serbs killed not only the armed Albanians treacherous and executed in its terrible ferocity, they murdered defenseless people, old people, women, children and even infants at the breasts of their mothers.

The Serb officers have spent in their enthusiasm; the word that the most effective way of pacifying Albania, was the utter extermination of the Albanians. Between Kumanovo and Skopje have slaughtered nearly 3000 people, near Prishtina alone 5000 Albanians fell under the blows of the Serbs. They were not in an honest battle, but in a series of horrific murders and atrocities by the Serbian soldiers have new methods invented in order to satisfy their bloodlust. In several villages, the houses were burned and crushed the unfortunate inhabitants, such as rats, as they tried to flee from the flames. The men were killed before the eyes of their wives and children, then the unfortunate mothers were forced to witness the spectacle of the massacre of children who were literally cut to pieces.

Executions were the daily maintenance of Serb soldiers. All residents, whose houses weapons were found, were executed (known each carrying weapons Albanians. The publisher.). Were shot or hung them up. One day it was up to 36 executions. It is noteworthy that the Serbian nationalists living in Hungary over the massacre in Albania are outraged. A former secretary of the Serbian Prime Minister Pasic, Mr. Tomic told that he has seen on his trip from Prizren to Ipek on both sides of the street but scorched villages were razed to the ground.

The roads were strewn with the gallows on which hung the body of Albanians. The road from Diakowitza had the appearance of a "boulevard of the gallows."

Even in seemingly leaves Belgrade told without shame of ghastly atrocities of the Serbs. As the regiment marched into the Supreme Osbic Prizren called this to his people. "Kill!" The Belgrade leaves tell when this command was given, "the Serb soldiers threw themselves into the houses, killing every living thing that fell into their hands."

Daily Telegraph, reported to be guaranteed a description of an Albanian notables: Whoever denounces an Albanian to the Serbs, is certain that that will be executed. There were people who were Muslim Albanians of money owed. They went and denounced their creditors to the Serbs as traitors. They immediately hung up the unfortunate Albanians and the informer was the means of his victim's house and field to a ridiculous price to buy.

In Skopje, unarmed Albanians were killed by Serbian officers simply. If it was only a hunting knife in a house, its owner was killed.

In Ferisowitsch the Serbian commander invited the refugees to return and lay down their arms. But as did the more than four hundred, they were murdered. Throughout Ferisowitsch barely a dozen Moslem families left alive. The war correspondent of the Messaggero confirmed this description.

In Pana, the Serbs killed their prisoners in Varos and Prishtina the population was literally decimated. The Serbian officers themselves said that they are on the "hunt" for Albanians and one Serb officer boasted to have killed in one day alone with his own hand nine Albanians.

A doctor from the "Red Cross" told by the same source: Everywhere in Albania, the Serbs have murdered without mercy. Neither women nor children were spared and the elderly. I've seen in Old Serbia every day, burning villages. At Craton , General Stefanovic hundreds prisoners in two limbs form and pop them down with machine guns. The General Zivkovic was killed in Sienitza 850 Albanian notables, because they had shown resistance.

The Albanian correspondent reported on 12 March from Trieste to the Albanian Congress was also read a letter from Kroja at Durazzo, from 27February this year, is dated and in which it states: The entire building and the Villa Mashar-Bey and Fuad Bey-(Note: Both take part in the conferences) are burned. Ali Lam Osmani's brother was living in Vignola at Kruja by the Serbs buried up to his waist in the ground and then shot down. The letter concludes by saying: We will no longer be seen. See you in another world!

The Serbs loot!

Djevad Ahmed, secretary of the Publication comitee de DACB reported, according to the testimony of various witnesses:

 "In Strumica was unheard by the Serbs stole and robbed. Major Ivan Gribic, commander of the fourth battalion of the 14th Serbian line regiment alone expedierte 80 carts loaded with furniture and carpets to Serbia. All the young girls and women of Strumica have been raped and forcibly baptized. The rest of the unfortunate Moslem population is dying of hunger, of misery, illness ... " 

The Albanian correspondence on 21 March 1913 report from Trieste: The plight of Albania has reached a terrible level degrees. The Serbian troops who have been first occupied Durazzo, without being provided with food from their directorship and fodder, thrown into the country. They were therefore completely dependent on the requisitions, they led with extraordinary hardness due. Of all the provisions available to them, nine in ten from, while they denied the handing over of certificates confirming the requisitioned supplies.

But not only for their needs requisitioned the Serbian troops. What they fell into the hands of food was taken away or destroyed. Old olive trees that were planted in the time of Venetian rule and ate their owners, were felled by the Serbs, killed livestock promising. No sheep, no chickens, no corn Oka, which the Serbs could get their hands remained unaffected. It is also robbery and pillage of them have been operated in an extensive scale. The Serbs have embarked in Durazzo large amounts of carpets and other stolen goods to Salonika, where they were transported to Belgrade. Even antique benches from the government building in Durazzo, they have acquired and loaded onto ships at their prey.

Toptani Fazil Pasha, which we have submitted this report for consideration, said: It's all true, what this report contains. But these facts are only a small fraction of all the horror that have perpetrated this barbaric atrocities in our country to. They broke with murder, robbery and fire in Albania and have caused havoc, from whose cruelty no one can get an idea.

Dervish Hima told us: Tell the public that a large part of the Albanian people are threatened with starvation. The time of spring cultivation is there, but the seed has robbed the Serb. Even if the Albanians had seed, they would not grow anything. Because the people say: If something would grow, it would destroy the Serb. In such fear of the Serbs live the people! Mass murder.

Mass murders

In Bucharest Adeverul of 6 January 1913 reported a Romanian doctor, Dr Leonte, that what he witnessed atrocities on the part of the Serbian army, the grimmest expectations have far exceeded. The fact that hundreds of captured Moslems were chased one hundred kilometers wide, would be for these unfortunates have been the least harm. If any of these pitiable but collapsed due to exhaustion and from hunger, he was stabbed by a simple nearest soldier with the bayonet and the body left behind. Only the fields with corpses of executed murdered old and young men and women and children are covered. Moved in as the Serb forces in Monastir, were all killed in the Turkish wounded lying hospitals, to make room for wounded Serbs. The soldiers have stolen what they could lay their hands. Also, foreign banks were robbed. A Bulgarian professor who made ??himself unpopular as a result of King Ferdinand yielded to the toast to the Serbian officers, has been a hard night that he was sowing the toast, disappeared without a trace. Dr. Leonte gives other depictions of atrocities, which are those of Kumanovo, Prizren etc. equivalent.

***

The famous war correspondent Hermenegild Wagner reported from Zemun on 20 November 1912:

During my three day stay in Nish, I could tell harrowing details of the inhumanities committed by Serbian troops. I state that I have for all the details right honorable witness.

In the fortress of Nish was a fifty-year Albanesin been brought, which was under the suspicion of having thrown bombs in Ferisovic against the invading Serbs. Instead of that we had asked the accused before a military court, handed over to the unfortunate woman, the Serb soldiers who smashed the woman's skull with rifle butts literally.

A Turkish Mulassim, named Abdul Kadri Bey, who had been caught, was beaten to death in the fortress of Nish. The corpse had a fracture of the nasal bone and a laceration of the liver. They had entered the victim that is with the feet to death.

An Albanian, which here made an attempt to escape, was killed by bayonet wounds and when his body in the mortuary, brought there by soldiers still trimmed appalling.

In the hospital of Nish, a number of Serbs entered a room, were wounded in the Turks. A Serb shouted jokingly, pointing to a severely wounded Turks: "He's the one who has wounded me!" Then the crowd fell on the defenseless Serbs ago wounded and battered him with kicks that he still breathed life beneath their feet.

A doctor of the "Red Cross" told me with horror that the prisoners and wounded, which may be seen in Nish and Belgrade were only parade prisoners. "The Serbs," he said, "give no quarter. All Albanians, were indifferent, with or without weapons, where you could get hold of her, mercilessly slaughtered. Women, children, old people ... there have been down there (in Old Serbia ) occurred terrible things. I do not know how many villages were burned down by Serb troops. I see them every day to burn well ... In Kratovo, General Stefanovic take hundreds of captured Albanians in two limbs and shoot down them with machine guns. This explained the General:

"The brood must be exterminated so that Austria can no longer find his Albanian favorites."

General Zivkovic had massacred 950 Albanian at Sjenica and Turkish notables, after ten thousand Albanians the advance of Serbian troops had prepared for big trouble.

From the Battle of Kumanovo very few wounded were picked up by the Serbs. The statement was King Peter himself, when he visited the hospital in Nish. As a wounded Serb complained to him that the Albanians looted Serb guns fired on Serbs and wounded him, said King Peter literally

"The pigs are difficult to lose!"

Serbian witnesses who mitmachten the battle, told me laughing mouth, as after the battle the dead and wounded, Turks and Albanians, without distinction, were thrown into large graves. When it was raining heavily, the sight of the battlefield was not, however, been kind. The shallow mass graves of Turks were sunken, hands, feet and heads terribly distorted bodies sticking out of the earth ...

Devastated villages

In Skopje, a returned Serbian officer told the first face of justice over the burning of 80 villages in Lumagebiete.

The German People's Journal published on 14 February, a report from southern Hungary, which states:

"Should the Serbian government is finally about to be clear that contribute to such denials, to let appear the truthfulness of Serbia, only less believable. Samples of the seriousness of such rallies have been able to cost at the time of regicide. Has not the time, the government in high official form at all deny that King Alexander and Queen Draga were murdered by the perjured officers, but that they had quarreled and killed each other ... "

Regarding the Albanian atrocities, it is a sad truth that the descriptions, which penetrated far into the open, completely correspond to the facts and have only one fault to be not exhaustive enough. Many Serbs themselves confirm this, often with great pride. I want to play only the testimony of a participant in the first stages of the war, which currently carries out its business in southern Hungary, because he prefers. although Serb from the kingdom to live in Austria's "oppression" and the "cultural and religious mildness" of his country as much as possible to go out of the way. With obvious delight tells the classic tools that Serbian soldiers whole pack of Albanian farmers have shot down without mercy, whose only "crime" was there that they found weapons in their homes. When I was about some surprise was, my informant said calmly: "What we should put our time to kill and escort these people into some distant garrison So it was much easier and we were free again and able to calm a drink?" This practical view seems very common property of the Serbian military to be, for a wounded man told a Belgrade hospital to a visitor, inter alia: "The Turks, we are left alone, but the Albanian dogs have massacred us, where it was possible (!) . " Has published further evidence is a letter from a Serbian officer, whom even the "Magyarorszag", whose Balkan correspondent for the Austrian deserter and gewesene Royal Serbian Ivan Preßleiter Iwanovic is. The letter stated, among other things, he, the officer had seen with my own eyes how his soldiers had tied after the capture of Monastir ten Turkish men, women and children and burned alive. These and similar facts may be here to hear from any Serb who has returned from the theater of war. These people have at least the official Serbian denials in the foreign press not read ... "

***

An Albanian from near Scopio reported.. "We saw Serbian soldiers approaching our village all ran back into the house I had no fear, wanted to see the stranger and went outside the house they were already there I give a soldier a.. small coin. I get hit on the head and plunge to the ground. The soldiers are storming into our house and me. They killed my mother and my father. Then they set fire to the houses and killed all the people. When I finally was able to collect everything was on fire. "

In Sefer, in the areas of Gilan, the Serbs put fire to a hut and threw the two old inhabitant - they can not escape - living in the blaze. They tied the hands of a man, told him to go and shot him.

Among various types of information for any reason in this month following villages were burned: Limbischte, Kolisch, and Terpeza Gilektar.In the last three places were all massacred, including women and children.

In Djakovaer districts in the village of Boba, four Serbian soldiers who rape women wanted a beating. That was enough. A punitive expedition was sent. Boba went up in flames. Everything was put to death. After work, the soldiers came to 70 Catholic Albanians from Nikoi who wanted to get in the village shopping. The soldiers also targeted at those people in a bloodbath.

In Serbian soldiers robbed three women Ipek, the Montenegrins again robbed three girls.

In areas of the Luma 32 offices were burnt down. Whose else you can get hold of, was killed.

In Dibra likewise gave Serbian soldiers out worst excesses. They stole what was only to take away. Then came new troops who put 24 villages on fire and killed all the inhabitants. ...

In Prizren, but the Catholic priest was allowed to give Viaticum to the dying. Whoever comes in contact with the priest comes before a military court.

***

From Durazzo, 8 March, says: Serbian troops have burnt the following villages:

Ses, Larusk, Mnikle, SCEJ and Gromni. Ses were in the house twenty women and girls and several children trapped and burned.

The villagers around Croja-Kurbino have fled into the mountains and have belongings left behind in order to save lives.

***

The Albanian correspondent reported on 12 March from Trieste:

Letters from Tirana inform him that the Serb troops committed in the vicinity of Tirana recently atrocities. The inhabitants of Kaza Tirana had housed a department of Albanian volunteers and provide them with provisions. When this fact came to the attention of the Serb military commander, was the village of troops secrete these departments. Then all the houses of the village and the estate of Fuad Toptani case were cremated. 17 men perished in the flames, ten men and two women were executed.

The Serbs also murdered Christians

The Imperial Post published on 20 March a letter from Albania, is reported in the.

"The parish priest of the shrine of Cernagora or Setnica, Don Tommaso, have robbed the Serb soldiers all the money that belonged to the church by him with drawn bayonets, forced open the cash register, and from it extracted the money that the treasury of the shrine . form

The parish priest of Gjakova was threatened with death, and called to him: "You either renounce the Austrian protectorate or we will burn you through the brain" But the priest was destroyed by his courageous appearance of their threats.

The pastor of the Serbs Ferizovic fail for three months every freedom in the exercise of his office and let every incarcerated who speak to him or to Mass and confession goes to him. The same they tried with the two priests from Prizren.

Against the Catholics of Janjewo (400 families, almost all Slavic nationality) is given to pull out all the stops to get them to transfer to the schismatic church.

For several centuries, living here in the Archdiocese of about 8,000 Catholics, called Laraman, that is hidden, which because of persecution by the Turks until now could not confess their faith openly. So when the Serbs arrived, several hundred of these would openly declare themselves as Catholics Laraman. When it learned that representatives of the new government came to the decision: "Either Moslem or Orthodox, Catholics do not!"

Near the shrine of the village Letnica Shashara is (90 families, all Catholic).This attracted a Serb soldiers gathered at the meadows, the men and tied them with ropes, then they began to plunder the houses and raping women and girls in the most bestial way.

There are numerous killings of Albanian Catholics. In Noshez as were killed in one day to thirty men who were staying peacefully in the village and committed no other crime than that they were Catholic Albanians called. In Zh??í were whole families of Catholic Malissoren who were purchases of salt, oil, sugar, etc. came to Prizren, without any guilt treacherously killed on the way, just as in 70 other Djakova Catholic people from the Piarre of Nikai.So persecuted they the Catholics, the local Orthodox nothing happens.

In the neighborhood of Dibra and Monastir, and in Kossovo, many villages have been recently destroyed. The robberies can not be described.Suffice it to mention that they sold the sheep at the time the piece to two francs, because you did not know where you with the Serbs was stolen from the Albanians and Montenegrins sheep back.

It now wants to deny us also that we are talking Albanian. A few schools were closed, where Albanian was taught. " 

The letter concludes with these words: "May God have mercy on our coming to our aid, and Europe, or we perish!"

***

In its issue of 21 March says the Neue Freie Presse :

"As we informed sources will be informed, finds new messages, according to, instead of persecuting Catholics and Moslems as well as in the district of Gjakova in districts of Dibra. Happen every day numerous murders. The population fled en masse, leaving behind their belongings. The persecution is not only directed against Albanians, but also against Catholic and Moslem Slavs. "

A butchered priest

The Neue Freie Presse reports under the 20th March:

On 7 March was united in and around Gjakova around the soldiers with fanatical Orthodox clergy to the people by force to the crossings of the Catholic faith to force the Orthodox.

About 300 people, men, women and children, among them Father Angelus Palio, were tied with ropes and death threats prompted the crossings.

An Orthodox priest pointed to the soldiers who stood ready with their guns, and said:

"Either you sign that you hereby converted to our one true faith, be they military or soldier of God will carry your soul to hell."

Then the prisoners signed the sheet on which the transfer declaration was required by the Orthodox religion.

As the last Father Angelus was his turn. And he was the only one who had the strength, calm and dignified, to refuse to abandon their faith.

When Father Angelus persisted to call three times, and despite the pleas of forcibly entered Catholics to refuse to be played from a horrific scene that could have been in the twentieth century in Europe never thought possible.

At a nod from the Orthodox priest fell, the soldiers came over the Franciscans, he tore the robe from the spiritual body, and began with their rifle butts to beat him.

Father Angelus fell with multiple bone and rib fractures to the ground, the Orthodox priest commanded the soldiers stop and asked the seriously injured, if he wanted to come over.

And again he shook his head and said quietly: "No, I do not leave my faith, and not break my vow."

Father Angelus was again countless butts, until finally a soldier pierced him with a bayonet, the lungs and so the lives of the unfortunates put an end.

A Serbian command blood

 

At the local directors of the district in western Albania Kroja a decree was issued, in which inter alia, stated:

"If in future any attack occurred, or the killing of even one of Serbian soldiers in the city, in the village or near it (!) occurred will be burned down the town and destroyed and all men of 15 years and older fall into the bayonets . "

This command is signed: Kroja on 5 January 1913th The Commander A. Petrovic, Captain First Class.

Kroja is the birthplace of national hero Skanderbeg, whose castle still stands in this city, for the Albanians, a sacred place!

Serbia votes

The German people sheet of 8 February writes:

"The Serbian Minister of Culture and Education Ljuba Jovanovic published in a Slavic Gazette a statement in which he emphasized, among other things. The Muslims will respect their rights as citizens, of course all the other an equal footing with regard to their religious affairs, then the Vakuf ( church) assets remain in their administration and their convents be taken as the Christian. The Muslims have, except for the regular troops, the Serbian occupation of not resist and they were consequently added to the Serbian troops no harm. The Albanians, however, have the Serbian occupation resisted and often fired at soldiers after they had already surrendered, and this not only outside but also from the houses of the occupied sites. Therefore, it has come to what is happening everywhere and always, where non-combatants with a victorious army into conflict. (That is, for the massacre of the Albanians.)

***

The Belgrade newspaper Piemont , which is considered the mouthpiece of radical military circles, dealt in its issue of 20 March with the question of Scutari, and declared, Scutari must fall to Montenegro. "If not this be possible , " says the paper, "then it must be razed to the ground Scutari."

Serbian officers boast of their crimes

The Albanian correspondent reported from Durazzo: monsters are the atrocities that have committed the Serbs in Albania. Serbian officers boast openly of her. In particular, in Kossovo, the Serbian troops have terrible havoc. A Serbian officer told here: The women had hidden their jewels, and most of them did not give up. We have in such cases, a person shot out of the house and immediately the whole jewelry was there. Especially terrible the Serbs have lived in Ljumagebiete. Men were burned alive, murdered old men, women and children. In Kroja, the birthplace of Scanderbeg, a number of men and women were executed by firing squad just burned a lot of houses. The Serbian commander, Captain Petrovic, published an edict in which he announced officially of these outrages. In Tirana, several Albanians were sentenced to flogging. Serbian soldiers cut down on the unfortunate happening for so long until they were dead. In Kawaja and people were beaten to death Elbassan also officially by the soldiers. A well-known, respectable, prosperous man, the son of a Turkish colonel was shot dead in Durazzo. Later published by the Serbian commander placard a verdict that the accused shot him of theft and sentenced to death. The Serbs destroy Catholic churches, and they say that these are Austrian buildings that they must sweep the ground. Serbian soldiers and officers harass day and night population.

Recently, a Serbian soldier was found murdered. Immediately left the Serbian commander take five in the murder of innocent Albanians trapped and shot.

A bloodbath in front of Scutari ( Shkodra Albania)

The Albanian correspondent reported from Podgoritza: After the battle of Brdica, which ended for the Serbs with such a costly defeat, the Serb forces threw in their retreat to the village Barbalushi. The terrified residents were against the Serbs with crucifixes in their hands and begged for mercy. But that did not help. The verwildeten troops threw themselves on the defenseless villagers stood down and many men, women, old men and children. In an eight-year-old child, who had torn the monster, no less than six bayonet wounds were stated.

The Serbian denials

The Serbian government has responded recently to the majority of reports of Serb atrocities with official denials. These official denials were made but in any case very promptly, but they bore the stamp of Unstichhältigkeit too open. Because the mere assertion that the accusations were untrue raised, the harder way to detailed charges are not removed from the world.

This, by no means exhaustive selection of reports of various kinds, not only Austria but also Italian, German, Danish, French and Russian sources will fall before the court of world history probably greater importance than all the denials of the Serbian royal Preßbureaus.

***

In a denial of 8 February, the Serbian press bureau declared that "such atrocities as they were allegedly carried out allegedly by the Serbian army, now in a nation that is made from scratch and religiously tolerant, are simply impossible." It must be answered: One Army, whose officers their king and queen to attack at night, murdered, mangled their bodies fifty-eight saber cuts and thrown out the window have, may very well such atrocities be expected, especially as the head of the originator of the carnage in Konak at Belgrade, Colonel Popovic, one of the leaders of the Serb incursion into Albania and currently commander of Serbian was occupation of Durazzo is.

 

 
 
 
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